Rome: Galleria Borghese featuring Bernini (and Ovid)

This is a guest post from my OU Classics classmate Colin Gough. Enjoy his visit to the Galleria Borghese in Rome, with a classical twist.

The Galleria Borghese is situated in the original Villa Borghese which was the villa suburbana, a country villa, owned by Pope Paul V’s nephew Cardinal Scipione Borghese. Cardinal Borghese was a patron of Bernini and the Galleria houses a significant amount of his secular output, many displayed in the position they were originally intended to be viewed.

The Villa is set in extensive formal gardens which themselves are a tourist attraction and can be accessed from several entrances, two of which are notable.  One is a long stroll from the Pician Hill with its superb and extensive views across Rome towards St Peter’s Basilica and the Vatican.

The Pincian Hill

For people yet to visit, a little about the gallery. It is wheelchair friendly with ramps and a (small) lift to both exhibition floors. For the weary traveller who cannot face a walk back through the grounds there are buses and a taxi layby (although you might have to wait to hail a taxi for a while) within 100 metres on the Via Piciana. The staff are possibly the most world weary and unengaging of all the attractions I visited, but I will give them the benefit of the doubt as, while I was waiting to pick up my ticket, at least five other people walked past the ‘sold out’ sign to ask if there were any tickets. I have checked today and there is no availability for five days: so pre-booking well in advance is a necessity. You have to leave bags (including handbags) in the cloakroom and, because the tickets are timed with people arriving and leaving at the same time it is a bit of a melee. Word of warning: although the tickets are timed the chap tearing off the stubs and letting you into the gallery doesn’t take much notice. Ours were for 3pm-5pm, we arrived in the gallery at 2.55 and it was a bit disconcerting listening to the message to clear the galleries and all the doors of the separate display rooms being shut until the next allotted time and being asked to leave. We had to show our tickets to at least three different people to stay on site.

However, it is all worthwhile.

“ when Pluto espied her,

no sooner espied than he loved her and swept her away, so impatient

in passion. In panic, Proserpina desperately cried out for her mother

and friends, more often her mother. Her dress had been torn at the top,

all the flowers she had picked fell out of her loosened tunic,

which only served to increase her distress, poor innocent girl!”

Ovid, Metamorphoses 5.394-400

Bernini – The Rape of Proserpina

Nothing prepares the visitor for the first sight of this statue and words simply cannot do it justice. From every angle it just leaves the viewer awestruck and breathless with its composition, detail, fluidity, softness and yet permanence, capturing the moment perfectly.

The detail, as with all Bernini, is superb: it’s possible to ‘feel’ the fingers gripping and dimpling Proposerpina’s leg and the fur on the hound.

“Her strength exhausted, the girl grew pale, then overcome

By the effort of running, she sawPenteus’ waters before her;

‘Help me, Father!’ she pleaded. ‘If rivers have power over nature,

mar the beauty which made me admired too well, by changing

my form!’ She had hardly ended her prayer when a heavy numbness 

came over her body; her soft white bosom was ringed in a layer

of bark, her hair was turned into foliage, her arms into branches”.

Ovid, Metamorphoses 1.543-550

col apollo
Bernini’s Apollo and Daphne – one of those images I have seen so many times in books and now in the flesh, and it doesn’t disappoint.

Again, Bernini captures the moment with amazing skill and detail from Apollo’s calm confidence juxtaposing Daphne’s plea etched on her face to Apollo’s sandal.

 

“Yet destiny wouldn’t allow Troy’s hopes to be overturned along with her walls. Aeneas, the hero whose mother was Venus,

rescued the household gods and, through the flames, on his shoulders

he carried a burden as sacred, his venerable father Anchises.

These, with his own dear son Ascanius, formed the spoil with Aeneas the dutiful chose to salvage from his possessions.”

Ovid, Metamorphoses 13.622-627

The tale of Aeneas is one of the foundation myths of the birth of Rome and an image often used on frescoes, friezes and coins by emperors to establish their lineage and the subject of Virgil’s The Aeneid, the opening lines of which are: 

Arma virumque cano, Troiae qui primus ab oris Italiam fatoprofugus Lavinaque venit litora.

I sing of the arms and the man, who first by fate was exiled from Troy’s coast, came to Italy and Lavina’s shores.

In Bernini’s representation (Aeneas, Anchises and Ascanius shown below), it is possible to see the defeat and suffering in their faces and the detail of the veins in the arms of Aeneas, the ‘old man’ skin on the stomach, veins in the legs and creases across the knees of Anchises is superb. The saving of the household gods is taking pride of place.

 

Whilst the figures are taken from Roman mythology which is my main interest and as can be seen heavily influenced by Ovid, a figure taken from the Bible is definitely worth including.  It is David of David and Goliath fame. I have always pictured David as a small youth probably intimidated and scared facing a giant of a man. Yet Bernini portrays him as determined and fearless. This is probably nearer the truth as slingshots were used by the Roman army and they were, indeed, formidable weapons.

david2

david
Bernini’s David

Although I have concentrated on Bernini, there is so much more to the Borghese. There is a room with a fabulous collection of Roman Gladiator mosaics which, as you can see, was completely deserted.

 

There are also beautiful artworks by Caravaggio, Titian and Reubens to name a few which shouldn’t be missed; however it is difficult to fit it all in within a two-hour slot.

I hope this encourages you to visit, if you haven’t already. To be frank I am jealous of anyone who plans to visit for the first time because you will get that massive emotional impact. Should you have been before I hope my pictures and musings will bring back good memories.

Either way – read Ovid’s Metamorphoses, there are so many myths, some which are obscure, and he brings Bernini’s vision and talent to life.

 

12 comments

  1. I shall be there in June, queueing up to see the Bernini’s and the Caravaggios once again. I can only manage these in the slot allowed but anyway, I don’t think one can take in more in one day. Bernini leaves me breathless.
    And then there’s ROME!

      • I don’t like to book things ahead as it interferes with my spontaneity. I had a bad experience where I tried booking online and kept getting transferred to secondary sites that charged more. After 40 years of visiting Roma it was worth it though. I wrote a post describing in detail how to visit. It was amazing. I left in a Bernini/Caravaggio coma😎Ciao, Cristina

    • The other thing which we found strange was the lack (at least when we were there) of any signage as to where to go. For instance we could see the cloakroom from the ticket desk but, because of the queueing ropes, we couldn’t see how to get there and when our tickets were taken, there was not an ‘entrance this way sign’. It does seem to be a one off place.

      • I had met with Linda-owner of the Beehive hostel the day before and she told me a few useful things, like that you had to check absolutely everything. Another friend told me the ticket office was down a few stairs. I booked first thing so that helped too, I think. I wrote a post afterwards with all of my ‘tips’. It is called ‘Visiting Galleria Borghese’. It was all worth it for the Bernini/ Caravaggio coma I left with! Ciao, Cristina

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